This volume is devoted to the tense relationship of the early Christian Church with the pagan Roman Empire on the one hand, and Judaism on the other. Chapter I discusses what pagan Graeco-Roman authors had to say about Christianity. Chapter II is about the always tricky subject of Jews and Christians. It is carefully argued what exactly divided them in the first centuries. Next it is studied what Christian authors had to say of Judaism. Chapter III takes up the subject of the Judaizers as a cause of disruption.